MongoDB $and

Summary: in this tutorial, you’ll about the MongoDB $and operator and how to use it to perform a logical AND operation.

Introduction to the MongoDB $and operator

The $and is a logical query operator that allows you to carry a logical AND operation on an array of one or more expressions.

The following shows the syntax of the $and operator:

$and :[{expression1}, {expression2},...]
Code language: PHP (php)

The $and operator returns true if all expressions evaluate to true.

The $and operator stops evaluating the remaining expressions as soon as it finds an expression that evaluates to false. This feature is called short-circuit evaluation.

Implicit AND operator

When you use a comma-separated list of expressions, MongoDB will carry an implicit AND operation:

{ field: { expression1, expression2, ... }
Code language: CSS (css)

MongoDB $and operator examples

We’ll use the following products collection:

db.products.insertMany([ { "_id" : 1, "name" : "xPhone", "price" : 799, "releaseDate" : ISODate("2011-05-14T00:00:00Z"), "spec" : { "ram" : 4, "screen" : 6.5, "cpu" : 2.66 }, "color" : [ "white", "black" ], "storage" : [ 64, 128, 256 ] }, { "_id" : 2, "name" : "xTablet", "price" : 899, "releaseDate" : ISODate("2011-09-01T00:00:00Z"), "spec" : { "ram" : 16, "screen" : 9.5, "cpu" : 3.66 }, "color" : [ "white", "black", "purple" ], "storage" : [ 128, 256, 512 ] }, { "_id" : 3, "name" : "SmartTablet", "price" : 899, "releaseDate" : ISODate("2015-01-14T00:00:00Z"), "spec" : { "ram" : 12, "screen" : 9.7, "cpu" : 3.66 }, "color" : [ "blue" ], "storage" : [ 16, 64, 128 ] }, { "_id" : 4, "name" : "SmartPad", "price" : 699, "releaseDate" : ISODate("2020-05-14T00:00:00Z"), "spec" : { "ram" : 8, "screen" : 9.7, "cpu" : 1.66 }, "color" : [ "white", "orange", "gold", "gray" ], "storage" : [ 128, 256, 1024 ] }, { "_id" : 5, "name" : "SmartPhone", "price" : 599, "releaseDate" : ISODate("2022-09-14T00:00:00Z"), "spec" : { "ram" : 4, "screen" : 9.7, "cpu" : 1.66 }, "color" : [ "white", "orange", "gold", "gray" ], "storage" : [ 128, 256 ] }, { "_id" : 6, "name" : "xWidget", "spec" : { "ram" : 64, "screen" : 9.7, "cpu" : 3.66 }, "color" : [ "black" ], "storage" : [ 1024 ] } ])
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

1) Using MongoDB $and operator example

The following example uses the $and operator to select all documents in the products collection where:

  • the value in the price field is equal to 899 and
  • the value in the color field is either "white" or "black"
db.products.find({ $and: [{ price: 899 }, { color: { $in: ["white", "black"] } }] }, { name: 1, price: 1, color: 1 })
Code language: PHP (php)

It returned the following document:

{ "_id" : 2, "name" : "xTablet", "price" : 899, "color" : [ "white", "black", "purple" ] }
Code language: JSON / JSON with Comments (json)

2) Using MongoDB $and operator with the same field

The following example uses the $and operator to select all documents where:

  • the price field value equals 699 and
  • the price field value exists
db.products.find({ $and: [{ price: 699 }, { price: { $exists: true } }] }, { name: 1, price: 1, color: 1 })
Code language: PHP (php)

Output:

{ "_id" : 4, "name" : "SmartPad", "price" : 699, "color" : [ "white", "orange", "gold", "gray" ] }
Code language: JSON / JSON with Comments (json)

The following example uses the implicit AND operator and returns the same result:

db.products.find({ price: { $eq: 699, $exists: true } }, { name: 1, price: 1, color: 1 })
Code language: CSS (css)

Summary

  • Use the MongoDB $and operator to perform a logical AND operation.
  • MongoDB performs an implicit AND operation if you specify a comma-separated list of expressions.
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